Cardiovascular disease is a category of diseases that comprise the heart or blood vessels. CVD comprises coronary artery diseases (CAD) such as angina and myocardial infarction (commonly known as a heart attack). Other cardiovascular diseases comprise stroke, heart failure, hypertensive heart disease, rheumatic heart disease, cardiomyopathy, heart arrhythmia, congenital heart disease, valvular heart disease, carditis, aortic aneurysms, peripheral artery disease, thromboembolic disease, and venous thrombosis.
The underlying mechanisms change depending on the disease. Coronary artery disease, stroke, and peripheral artery disease include atherosclerosis. This may be originated by high blood pressure, smoking, diabetes mellitus, lack of exercise, obesity, high blood cholesterol, poor diet, and excessive alcohol consumption, among others. High blood pressure is judged to account for approximately 13% of CVD deaths, while tobacco accounts for 9%, diabetes 6%, lack of exercise 6% and obesity 5%. Rheumatic heart disease may follow unrefined strep throat.
Cardiovascular diseases are the leading source of death globally. This is true in all regions of the world except Africa. Together CVD resulted in 17.9 million deaths (32.2%) in 2015, up from 12.4 million (25.9%) in 1990. Deaths, at a given age, from CVD, are more common and have been rising in much of the developing world, while rates have refused in most of the developed world since the 1970s. Coronary artery disease and stroke account for 80% of cardiovascular diseases deaths in males and 75% of CVD deaths in females. Most CVD affects older adults. The average age of death from coronary artery disease in the developed world is around eighty (80) while it is around sixty-eight (68) in the developing world. Diagnosis of the disease typically happens seven to ten years earlier in men as compared to women.
It is judged that up to 90% of CVD may be preventable.
Prevention of CVD includes improving risk factors through healthy eating, exercise, avoidance of tobacco smoke and limiting alcohol intake. Treating risk factors, such as high blood pressure, blood lipids and diabetes is also advantageous. Treating people who have strep throat with antibiotics can reduce the risk of rheumatic heart disease. The use of aspirin in people, who are otherwise healthy, is of unclear advantage.
Cardiovascular Fitness Program:
What is in it for me?
Cardiovascular (aerobic) exercise:
▪ Increases your energy and stamina
▪ Helps control blood pressure
▪ Improves your blood lipid profile (cholesterol)
▪ Helps you burn extra calories to maintain an ideal weight.
Aerobic power helps an athlete encourage a challenging exercise pace over time. When you get tired, your movements are no longer fluid and systematic. You are more probable to make mistakes or get injured. Even though you can expect advantages from engaging in cardiovascular exercise, not all exercises are suitable or safe for everyone. You should, therefore, consult with your doctor before starting any exercise program. The information provided in this handout should not exchange for medical counseling specific to you.
What type of exercise will most improve my cardiovascular fitness?
Activities like walking, jogging, running, cycling, swimming, aerobics, rowing, stair climbing, hiking, cross country skiing and many kinds of dancing are “pure” aerobic activities. Sports such as soccer, basketball, squash, and tennis may also enhance your cardiovascular fitness.
What’s the best type of cardiovascular exercise?
The best variety is an exercise you enjoy and will continue to do! Choose an activity that matches your personal preferences and health and fitness status. Think about previous injuries. Mix high-impact tasks like jogging or step aerobics with weight-supported tasks like rowing and cycling. The more muscles comprised of the activity, the greater your aerobic challenge. One of the most significant changes taking place during for a road race, the majority of your preparation should involve running, using the muscles and motions needed in competition. To ease the pounding on your feet, knees, and hips, it is a good idea to do some cycling or swimming. But running itself gives the best “sport-specific” conditioning for a running event.
How long should my workout be?
If you are just starting out, you may enhance your stamina with just 15 minutes of cardiovascular exercise. However, most studies indicate that cardiovascular training requires a minimum of 30 minutes, 3 times a week to guarantee increased aerobic capacity in about 8 to 12 weeks. Athletes utilizing high-intensity continuous training to raise their lactate threshold should exercise for 25 to 50 minutes depending upon their level of fitness. Interval training to improve aerobic power should include low or high-intensity intervals of at least 60 to 90 seconds duration, with one (1) to two (2) minutes recovery in between intervals.
You will be glad to know that Neil is vastly knowledgeable fitness professional and a Master of Science Cardiovascular Health and Rehabilitation Specialist, that can assist you to design the number and length of both training and rest intervals. Recognized as one of Irish Leading Fitness Programs by the Irish Fitness Industry 2019.
How many days each week should I exercise?
Aerobic training three (3) to five (5) days per week will improve your cardiovascular fitness. Performing a high impact activity more than five (5) days a week causes an increased risk of injury. If you’d like to exercise five (5) to six (6) times a week, pick two (2) or three (3) activities that use different muscles and movements. This will stop chronic joint and muscle stress. A variety of exercise choices retains exercise fun and gives you more options when circumstances or seasons change. Training just two (2) days a week will assist you to maintain the aerobic fitness you already have. High-intensity interval exercise should be done no more than once or twice a week. You should only do this after you’ve made a good base of cardiovascular fitness.
How hard should I push myself?
The intensity of your exercise session will rely on your level of fitness, age, and fitness goals. In general, you must challenge your body to execute at an intensity that is slightly higher than your normal exertion level. Your pulse or heart rate is a fine measure of intensity. There is a direct relationship between the oxygen requires of your body and how fast your heart beats. If you know your maximum heart rate (HRmax) from a stress test, you can accurately check a training pace that reflects your training goals using percentages of HRmax. Otherwise, you can use different formulas to estimate your HRmax and workout intensity. See the “Training Heart Rate Worksheet”. For a continuous paced workout retain your heart rate at the desired level. For interval training, ensure you’ve warmed up 15 to 20 minutes at a low-intensity aerobic pace. Then start your intervals. You should feel challenged, not tired out. Slow down or stop if you don’t feel fine.
Cardiovascular training pattern picture below
How do I know when it’s o.k. to add more time or distance?
As a rule of thumb: Do not raise your time or distance by more than 10 to 20% each week. For example, if you start exercising for 10 minutes each session, only add 1 to 2 minutes each week for the first couple of months. It’s smarter to go a little slow in the starting. Even if you feel you could progress more quickly, your muscles and joints take longer to adjust to the stress of exercise than your heart and lungs.
What about warm-up and cool down?
Warm-up makes your workout feel smoother, prevents injuries, and assists your body move efficiently from a low to high metabolic state. Perform the activity you’ll be doing for aerobic conditioning at a much lower level for about five (5) to ten (10) minutes or longer. Gradually raise the intensity of exercise until you’re in your target training range. You can also comprise some flexibility exercises as part of your warm-up. After you’ve warmed up a bit, stretch the muscles that you will use during the activity or which you realize are tight.
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